Spanish citizenship (part 1)

The following people are Spanish:

  • People whose parents are Spanish.
  • Persons born in Spain whose parents are foreigners and whose parents were born in Spain (except for the children of diplomats).
  • Persons born in Spain have foreign parents but neither parent has a nationality, or the laws of both countries where the parents are nationals do not allow their children to naturalized. there. In this case, you can go to the Citizens’
  • People born in Spain without the parents. The children whose first place of residence is known as the Spanish territory are considered to have been born in Spain.
  • People under 18 years old who are adopted by Spanish citizens also bear the same Spanish nationality. If the adoptive person is over 18 years old, he / she may choose to apply for Spanish citizenship within 2 years from the date of adoption.

1. Enter Nationality based on your choice

The right to choose a nationality is a benefit that Spanish law provides to foreigners converging certain conditions so that they can apply for Spanish citizenship. The following persons may apply for Spanish citizenship:

Those who have been or are under the guardianship of a Spanish citizen
People whose parents were Hispanic and who were born in Spain.
Persons who have established paternity / maternity or birth place in Spain after 18 years of age. In this case, the time limit for choosing a nationality is two years from the date of the establishment of the paternity / mother relationship or the place of birth.
People adopted by Spanish citizens after the age of 18. In this case, the right to choose citizenship will only be valid for 2 years from the date of adoption.
Applicants can apply for citizenship at their option

The legal representative of the child or person with a disability has the right to choose a nationality. In this case, the legal representative should obtain the consent of the person in charge of the Citizens Office where he or she lives, after obtaining the opinion of the prosecutor.
The person is over 14 years old, with the help of his legal representative.
The person with a disability, if the disability permit to naturalization.
If the guardianship time has expired. Citizenship will expire at the age of 20, unless the individual law of the person concerned does not prescribe adultery at the age of 18 years and in such case, the naturalization will be limited to two years. from adolescence.
Where to apply

Filing at the Civil Registry of the place where the person or legal representative resides, as the case may be.

2. Naturalization for reasons of residence

In order to be naturalized in this way, the applicant must reside legally in Spain for 10 consecutive years and immediately before applying for naturalization. Cases of reduced residence requirements are as follows:

Five years for those who have been recognized as refugees
Two years: for citizens of Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries, Andorra, Philippines, Equatorial Guinea, Portugal and Spanish seafarers (sefardi) .
One year for:
People born in Spain.
Persons who have the right to choose citizenship but do not exercise that right
A person who has been under legal guardianship, protection or foster care (which must be approved by a public agency for child protection in each locality or recognized by the judicial sentence) of a citizen or a Spanish institution for two consecutive years, even if the person concerned continues to be in this state at the time of filing.
The person who, at the time of the filing of the application, has a year of marriage with a Spanish national and is not legally separated or in fact.
Spouse or widow of a Spanish citizen, if not physically or legally separated from this person at the time of his / her death.
A person who is not born in Spain but whose father or mother is not born in Spain may or may not have the right to have the original Spanish nationality.
In addition, the applicant must demonstrate good ethics and sufficient degree of social integration in Spain.

Applicants can apply for naturalization according to the right of residence

If you are 18 years old or have been liberated for self-reliance.
People over 14, with the support of legal representatives.
The legal representative of persons over 14 years of age.
Persons with disabilities themselves or their legal representatives, depending on the court’s decision on the degree of disability.
Where to apply

Filing at the Citizenship Office where the person concerned resides.

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